Parliament and Government

Parliament and government both play a part in forming the laws of the United Kingdom. They are separate institutions that work closely together, so it’s easy to mix up exactly what each one is responsible for!

The government runs the country. It has responsibility for developing and implementing policy and for drafting laws. It is also known as the Executive.

Parliament is the highest legislative authority in the UK. It has responsibility for checking the work of government and examining, debating and approving new laws. It is also known as the Legislature.

Forming a government
The political party that wins the most seats in a general election forms the new government, led by their party leader — who becomes Prime Minister. The Prime Minister appoints ministers, including the Cabinet, who often work in a government department, and run and develop public services and policies.

Ministers and MPs
Government ministers are chosen from MPs and Lords in Parliament. Your MP may be a member of the party forming the current Government (ie, Labour) but it doesn't necessarily mean they are working 'in government'. Ministers must regularly respond to oral and written questions from MPs and Lords.

Scrutiny of the Government
Parliament checks the work of the government on behalf of UK citizens through investigative select committees and by asking government ministers questions. The House of Commons also has to approve proposals for government taxes and spending.

Confidence motion
The government needs to retain the confidence of a majority in the House of Commons. If the House votes to indicate that it has no confidence in the government, either by defeating the government on a confidence motion or by defeating a policy that the government has indicated is a 'matter of confidence' then the government would call a General Election.

Government Bills
Each year the government informs Parliament of its plans for new legislation in the Queen's Speech. New legislation is introduced as Bills and must be debated and approved by Parliament before it can become an Act of Parliament — the government needs the support of the majority of the House of Commons to function.

Parliamentary Diary.